Session A: Water Management and Climate Change
Prof. Chen Wen, Chinese Academy of Science, China
Topic: Super Drought Hotspots over East Asia and Southeast Asia in the Last Decade
Over SEA, the recent decade and the period around 1990 saw the most widespread super droughts that were not spatially uniformly distributed but clustered in three sub-regions. However, different from TCZ, the precipitation rather than PET is the most influential in governing super droughts over SEA. Out of the total variability in precipitation, about half of the super droughts in the recent decade are caused by decadal variability, while the trend mode has negligible influence. Further investigation illustrates that the decadal precipitation deficiencies in SEA during recent decade is remotely forced by teleconnection from persistent warming Tropical Western Indian (TWI) SST, via the Kelvin wave as the key mechanism
Professor Hyunhan Kwon, Sejong University
Topic : A novel spatial downscaling approach for climate change assessment in regions with sparse ground data networks
This study proposes a novel approach that expands the existing QDM (quantile delta mapping) to address spatial bias, using Kriging within a Bayesian framework to assess the impact of using a point reference field. Our focus here is to spatially downscale daily rainfall sequences simulated by regional climate models (RCMs), coupled to the proposed QDM-spatial bias-correction, in which the distribution parameters are first interpolated onto a fine grid (rather than the observed daily rainfall). The proposed model is validated through a cross-validatory (CV) evaluation using rainfall data from a set of weather stations in South Korea and climate change scenarios simulated by three alternate RCMs. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model to simulate the bias-corrected daily rainfall sequences over large regions at fine resolutions. A discussion of the potential use of the proposed approach in the field of hydrometeorology is also offered.
Session B: New Technology in Water and Irrigation Management
Dr. Min-Der Hung , COA and Dr. Chih-Hung Tan, AEC
Topic : The Responses of Agricultural Water Resource Management to Climate Change
The main purpose of this article is to discuss how to formulate adaptation and management strategies for agricultural water resources in the face of the severe challenges of climate change in the future. The established adaptation management strategy should not only based on the drought-resistant operation experience of the third irrigation district in Taoyuan this year using multiple sources of water irrigation, but also rely on long-term policy planning for agricultural food and farmland water conservancy to plan and stage. The implementation of large-scale crop rotation measures in water resources competition areas in a sexual way will gradually guide farmers to change their current habit of planting rice in the first phase to dry farming. Enable farmers to adjust their farming patterns in response to climate change as soon as possible, so that water resources in the dry season can be retained in the reservoir. In addition, the Irrigation Agency will also plan and promote short-, medium-, and long-term adjustment strategies for agriculture to respond to drought, continue to improve water supply services to farmers, and build a public management mechanism for multiple water resources, including continuous construction and optimization of existing ponds and agricultural reservoirs, and active use of existing Water storage facilities and subsidized water sources; expand the scope of implementation of systematic renewal and improvement of roads, water-saving pipeline irrigation, and smart irrigation. It is hoped that through the various measures mentioned in this article to strengthen the response to agricultural drought, the resilience of agricultural water resources can be improved, farmers' farming rights can be protected, and the impact of climate change can be mitigated.
Dr. Chakaphon Singto, RID, Thailand
Topic: Participatory Water Diversion Project in Bang Rakam Flood-prone Field
"Bang Rakam" means “Frustrated community”. Before the project initiated in 2017, pictures of farmers rowing a boat to harvest rice in flood were seen quite often. Before the project occurred,
compensation of more than 3 million dollars per year was paid by the government to farmers affected by floods. After the start of the Participatory Water Diversion project, those pictures have almost disappeared. In 2017, flooded area has decreased. In 2018, hundred percent of the paddy fields were harvested before the flood came in September. The capacity of Bang Rakam Flood-prone field can retain more than half the volume of the Khwae Noi dam. The key benefit of the project can be clearly seen in 2020 with the amount of water running through the Y14A water measurement station, Si Satchanalai District, Sukhothai Province, up to 1,499 m3/sec. This big amount of water did not severely affect the lower Chao Phraya Basin, in comparison with only 900 m3/sec causing severe damages by flood before 2017. Those benefits of the project can support the overall economy of the country in term of no big flood events as it usually happened in Chao Praya River basin. Apart from that, the government has saved huge amount of compensation payments for damaged rice crops caused by floods.
This success of Participatory Water Diversion Project in Bang Rakam Flood-prone Field was extended. The Royal Irrigation Department has adopted the factors of success; 1) benefit-sharing applied for the effective change instead of compensation payment to those affected farmers. 2) initiative from local knowledge and development further through effective participation run by expertise RID staff. 3) sufficient water storage for water allocation to farmers in dry season. Therefore, RID will continue to use these three factors to success as called "Bang Rakam Model" for solving problems in 12 lower fields in Chao Praya River basin appropriately
Session C: Water Management Towards SDGs
Surin Worakijthamrong, PhD., Director of Groundwater Development Bureau, Department of Groundwater Resources, Thailand
Topic: Innovations for Groundwater Management towards SDGs in Thailand
The innovative approaches to groundwater management are categorized into 3 parts; 1) large-scale groundwater distribution system, 2) DGR-SCADA, and 3) holistic mindset for groundwater management. The large-scale groundwater distribution system aims to find the most groundwater potential suitable for mass water consumption and agriculture. This project would help supply water during the dry season. Secondly, the DGR-SCADA will be installed to monitor the water extraction, providing real-time data which will be analyzed and accessible via either Web application or mobile application. This system would give relevant information for decision makers to monitor and regulate groundwater use virtually. Lastly, the DGR has adopted a holistic mindset by establishing the strategy to promote public participation in agricultural groundwater management, setting up groundwater user groups, and collaboration with various stakeholders such as the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives. This approach can boost the agricultural yield and farmers’ income, which further supports local economy. With advanced technologies and innovative approaches, groundwater resources will be better managed to improve well-being and pursue SDGs targets.
Haider Saira M., Powlen, Kathryn, and Davis Kyle W., USA
Topic: Integrating Groundwater and Resiliency Frameworks: Informing Transboundary Groundwater Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin, Cambodia and Vietnam
The Mekong River Basin is increasingly stressed from infrastructure development, growing water demands, and land cover change impacted by climate variability. These events can impact water quantity and quality and drive additional hazards such as land subsidence and saltwater intrusion that threaten millions of people who live in or near the Mekong River Basin. We demonstrate the relationship between climate variability, groundwater availability, and social vulnerability by developing a vulnerability assessment, which links the results of a groundwater model to land cover and socio-economic data at the Cambodia-Vietnam border, in the Lower Mekong Basin. We model changes in groundwater availability under different climate scenarios and estimate water needs to identify areas potentially vulnerable to water stress or changes in groundwater availability. Additionally, we assess province-level adaptive capacity to understand how communities may be able to respond or cope with this stress in order to fully understand future impacts. Our proof-of-concept model offers a unique approach to modeling multiple climate scenarios linking the predicted changes to the broader socio-economic context in which they occur. Increasing our understanding of how groundwater availability may change in the future and how it will impact local populations and livelihoods can help achieve several Sustainable Development Goals